456 THE IRON" INDUSTRY. No. 11.—Upper Monongahela: Also called the Fairmount district; it is the northern part of the State, drained by the Monongahela, and shipping its coal by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It embraces Preston, Taylor, Harrison and Marion counties. The statistics include the ovens located at Wheeling, at the ."Riverside Iron Works. No. 12.—New River and Ivanawha: Named from the rivers draining them, and embracing Fayette and Kanawha counties. The coal is shipped partly by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad and partly by the Kanawha. River. No. 13.—Upper Potomac: Also called the Elk Garden district; includes Mineral, Tucker and Randolph counties and is the southern extension of the Cumberland district of Maryland. The West Virginia Central and Pittsburgh Railway runs through this field. SEC. XXIIc.-—Lake Superior: NOTE : I am indebted to A. I. Mndley, formerly Editor of The Iron Trade Review, for much information that is here printed for the first time. Up to 1880 the State of Pennsylvania was the heaviest producer of iron ore in the Union, but the amount raised was entirely insufficient to supply its blast furnaces, and large quantities were imported from Spain, and from the west coast of England. For years Michigan had been mining ore, the Marquette deposits having been opened in 1845, but it was not until 1856 that as much as 5000 tons was shipped to Pennsylvania. Transportation was high and Spanish- ores were taken to Pittsburgh as cheaply as the Western ores could be laid down at that point. The Menominee beds were opened in 1877, the first shipments from Escanaba being made in 1880, and in about the year 1881 the output of Michigan exceeded that of any other State. In 1884 the Gogebic range was opened, all three districts being in northwest Michigan, but in the same year the Vermilion mines in northeastern Minnesota began to produce, and when, in 1892 and 1893, the Mesabi range was exploited, Minnesota became a dangerous rival. In 1901 the Mesabi mines produced 9,303,541 tons and the Vermilion 1,805,996 tons, a total of 11,-109,537 tons, while Michigan raised only 9,654,067 tons, thus giving first rank to Minnesota. In 1903 the Mesabi and Vermilion districts together produced 33 per cent, jn^re than the three ranges of Michigan.